Concept of Programming Language:
The programming languages are used to communicate with the computer system through the instructions and commands in order to solve the problems.
Introduction to Programming Language:
Programming languages are the medium of expressing in the art of computer programming.
An ideal programming language will make it easy for programmers to write programs clearly. A good programming language will help programmers to interact among software components effectively. The history of programming begins around 1958 – 1960 with development of ALGOL and COBOL.
Programming languages are broadly classified into System Programming and Application Programming.
1. What is System Programming?
System Programming languages are used to design the system software. A system is used to perform various task related to computer hardware and software. These languages are used to design software to control various devices attached to computer like input/output, memories, processor etc.
2. What is Application Programming?
The Application Programs are designed for some specific applications in the computer systems such as image editing, inventory, payroll etc.
3. Explain different types of programming languages?
Different types of programming languages are
- Machine Language(Low Level): The machine language programs are written in the forms of binary numbers consisting of 1 and 0. Machine language can be considered as a group of bytes. Machine language is a binary code that is executed by the computer system. The fetches instruction from the memory and executes them. A program written in machine language is directly accessed by the computer without any changes. This language is the most difficult because learning the sequence of 1 and 0 in a specific order is not easy task.
- Assembly Language: It is one step up from machine language. Writing a program in assembly language is more user-friendly than that of writing a program in machine language. Assembly language programs consist of two important parts opcode and operand. Example: ADD R1, R2 3.
- High Level Language:A high level language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. These languages are closer to human languages and easy to understand. Example: JAVA.
- Fourth Generation Language (4GL): They are designed to reduce programming efforts, time to develop software and the cost of software development. The programming environment is designed with a specific purpose in mind like developing software for commercial use. Example: LISP.
4. Define opcode and operand?
OPCODE defines what is to be done with the data and which operation to perform.
OPERAND determine, where to fetch data and display results.