Important internal devices of CPU
The processor is the main part of the computer. The greater the number of GHz the faster the speed of Personal Computer (PC) and the more expensive the processor will be. The processor is also known as the CPU or Central Processing Unit.
• If the processor is the main part of the computer and the RAM is the memory, then the
motherboard is the backbone of the computer.
• This is the circuit board that contains the slots and sockets that everything else plugs into.
• Many motherboards now come with onboard sound, eliminating the need for a sound
card, video, networking ports and USB ports.
• Several different types of slots can be found on your board. It is important to know what
these are for, as the number of them on your motherboard will affect the number of hard
disks, memory chips, graphics cards, optical cards, modems, network cards, sound cards.
Note: Diagram of a motherboard. Note that the location of these components vary,
depending on your motherboard.
AGP slot: This is for the graphics card; you only need one AGP slot.
DIMM slot: This is for your memory. There are several different types of memory. 2 slots =
good, 4 slots = better.
PCI slot: This is for cards like sound card, network card, modem etc. These slots will be the ones
you use most often, so make sure that mother board have plenty – at least four.
CPU socket: Make sure that the socket type is right for the processor you have chosen and the
Back panel of CPU:
There will also be a number of ports on the edge of your motherboard, which will form part of the
back panel of your PC.
In the example on the right there are PS/2 ports for connecting keyboard and mouse, a parallel
port for a printer or scanner, serial ports that will rarely be used, a couple of LAN ports, four USB
ports and a sound port. More and more devices like printers and scanners are connecting the
computer using USB.
RAM-Random Access Memory:
• Memory is also known as RAM. The more memory you add to a
computer in theory the faster it will be.
ROM – Read-Only Memory
• It is an integrated-circuit memory chip that contains configuration data.
• ROM is commonly called firmware because its programming is fully embedded into the
• ROM is hardware and software in one, as data is fully incorporated at the ROM chip’s
manufacture, data stored can neither be erased nor replaced.
• ROM gives permanent and secure data storage. However, if a mistake is made in
manufacture, a ROM chip becomes unusable / useless.
• The most expensive stage of ROM manufacture, therefore, is creating the template. If a
template is readily available, duplicating the ROM chip is very easy and affordable.
• A ROM chip is also non volatile so data stored in it is not lost when power is turned off.
• Responsible for any noise that comes out of your PC (apart from the whirring of fans and spinning drives). Most motherboards now come with built in sound chips.
• A video card also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms.
• It is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to
generate and output images to a display.
• It operates on similar principles as a sound card or other
• A network card, network adapter, LAN Adapter or NIC
(network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware
designed to allow computers to communicate over a
Inserting Sound and Graphics card
• A Hard drive is the main storage area of the computer. All software is likely to be stored on it along with all the files.
• A hard drive works in a similar method to the floppy disk, data is stored by magnetizing sections of the disk creating a one, or not magnetizing sections creating a zero.
Steps in –‘Inserting the Hard Disk’
• Place hard disk drive into the HDD mounting slot of the case;
• Ensure the IDE/ATA connector is facing outwards.
• Screw the HDD to the case using screws provided with the HDD or the ATX case.
• Insert the ATA 66 cable into the ATA connector of the HDD.
• Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the HDD connector. Pin 1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an ATA cable.
• Most new IDE/ATA cables are designed so that it will
only go in one way which will correspond to pin 1.
• Push the power cable into the power connector as shown. The power cable is designed to
go in one way, so you shouldn’t have any problems.
• Connect the other end of the ATA 66 cable to the primary ATA
socket of your motherboard as shown.
• Ensure the pin 1 on the cable connects to the pin 1 on the ATA
Steps in – ‘Installation of CD-ROM / DVD-ROM
• Connect the IDE cable to the drives IDE connector.
• Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the drives IDE connector. Pin
1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an IDE cable.
• Connect the other end of the IDE cable to the IDE socket on your motherboard as
shown below. Ensure sure you connect the cable to pin 1.
• The IDE socket could be your primary or secondary socket depending which socket you
choose. If your HDD is on the primary IDE socket and your secondary IDE socket is
free, then it is better to use your secondary IDE socket for the CD/DVD-ROM.
• An optical drive is a collective term for CD drives, DVD drives, CD RW burners and DVD burners.
• All of these devices read information from an optical disk which is different from the magnetic media like floppy disks.