##### Basic Geometric Transformations

The process to change the geometry of each object by changing its size, position or orientation. These operations are called geometric transformations.

**Translation**

We translate objects in the (x, y) plane to new positions by adding translation vectors to the coordinates of their vertices.

x’ = x + d _{x}

y’ = y + d _{y}

In matrix form this is:

**Scaling**

Objects can be stretched or shrinked by scaling their vertices. Their coordinates have to be multiplied by the