Introduction to Marketing

Marketing Mix: The fundamentals of marketing, which enables the likely transaction / communication between the right buyer and seller.

Well known marketing author and professor Philip Kotler, define some of his modern fundamentals of marketing, also popularly known as the 4Ps of marketing.

They are as follows:

    1. Product: This involves activities that relate to the research, formulation and finalisation of a product which is supposed to meet the requirement or desire of a certain buyer in a certain market.
    2. Price: This activity revolves around the fundamental of having research, theorize and finalize the price for a certain market. Note that a lot of factors are part from the cost involved in the product goes into such activities.
    3. Promotion: This fundamental involves the declaration about the product and it’s perceived price to a certain segment of buyer for a certain product.
    4. Place: This fundamental involves the activity around finalising the right place for a certain product to a consumer or buyer.

    Marketing Strategy

    Marketing Strategy = Marketing Mix + Finding the right segment of buyer / consumer

    A marketing strategy is a marketing plan in action whereby right marketing mix is applied read more

Introduction to Digital Marketing

Digital marketing is a set of methods and concepts to help marketing of goods and services. In the digital space i.e. the internet and related media.

Few concepts around which digital marketing revolved are specified as below:

Inbound Vs. Outbound

This is a phenomena describe by the customer’s behaviour while trying to purchase a certain product or service.

Inbound customers or traffic is a concept where the customer solicit (or ask) description or information around a certain product, category read more

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

A search engine service is an online software ex. Google, Bing or Ask which indexes all possible web pages being indexed, stored and ranked as per a define algorithm applied per category and sub category or such web pages.SEO are certain sets of activity which help the owner of the website or webpage to better indexing and search of its

SEO are certain sets of activity which help the owner of the website or webpage to better indexing and search of its webpage and website. Such efforts can be both read more

Introduction To DBMS Part One

Contributed By: Hosnia Batool 

What is data?

facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.Data is also known as raw fact(not processed).

I.e : Name, gender etc.

Data is plural of datum (sing piece of information).

what is information?

Information is the result of processed data.Information is also facts provided or learned about something or someone.

What is database?

is a collection of related data and data is a collection of facts and figures that can be processed read more

Introduction To DBMS Part Two

Contributed By:: Ms. Hosnia Batool

Generalization Aggregation

The ER- Model has the power of expressing database entities in a conceptual hierarchical manner. As the hierarchy goes up, it generalizes the view of entities, and as we go deep in the hierarchy, it gives us the detail of every entity included.

Going up in this structure is called generalization, where entities are clubbed together to represent a more generalized view. For example, a particular student named Mira can be generalized along with all the students. The entity shall be a student, read more


Part one


Abacus:یکی از اولین دستگاه ها شناخته شده که در آن دانه استفاده میشود برای عملیات ریاضی

Actuator A TO Z OF COMPUTER: دستگاه مورد استفاده برای نیاز فزیکی

Algorithm: شیوه علمی برای حل مسایل
Alphanumeric Data Field: یک واحد اطلاعات در یک رکورد که ممکن است هر نوع داده شده شمامل اعداد ,

حروف و یا نمادهای خاص

Analogue read more