Chapter 1 Introduction to PHP

Contributed By:: Shehrevar Davierwala

What is PHP ?

PHP is probably the most popular scripting language on the web. It is used to enhance web pages.

PHP is a program that gets installed on top of your web server software like Apache,Microsoft IIS and other server software packages.

PHP is a scripting language, like HTML. That means that code does not need to be compiled before it gets used — it gets processed on the fly as necessary.

Why PHP ?

PHP is used to enhance web pages. read more

Chapter 1. What Is C?

Contributed By : Shehrevar Davierwala

  1. What Is C?

C is a programming language that allows a software engineer to efficiently communicate with a computer.
C is a highly flexible and adaptable language. Since its creation in 1970, it?s been used for a wide variety of programs including firmware for micro -controllers, operating systems, applications, and graphics programming.
C is one of the most most widely used languages in the read more

Chapter 2 How to install C? Environment Setup

Contributed By: Shehrevar Davierwala

You really do not need to set up your own environment to start learning C programming language. Try following example using our online compiler option available at

Local Environment Setup:

If you want to set up your environment for C programming language, you need the following two software tools available on your computer, (a) Text Editor and (b) The C Compiler.

What is a text editor?

This will be used to type your program. read more

Chapter 3 My first C Program

Contributed By: Shehrevar Davierwala

A C program, whatever its size, consists of functions and variables. A function contains
statements that specify the computing operations to be done, and variables store values
used during the computation.

Below is the simple program in C

1 /* First C program: Hello World */
2 #include <stdio.h>
4 int main(void)
5 {
6 printf(“Hello World!\n”);
7 }

(Please avoid read more

Chapter 4. How to compile & execute C program?

Contributed by : Shehrevar Davierwala

( Note below lines of code are with respect to gnu )

The Compiler
A C program is made by running a compiler which takes the typed source
program and converts it into an object file that the computer can execute. A
compiler usually operates in two or more phases.

  •  Phase 1 scans a source program, perhaps generating an intermediate
    code (quadruples or pcode) which helps to simplify the grammar of the
    language for subsequent processing. It then converts the intermediate
    code into a file of object code (though this is usually not executable
    yet). A separate object file is built for each separate source file. In the
    GNU C compiler, these two stages are run with the command gcc -c;
    the output is one or more .o files.
  • Phase 2 is a Linker. This program appends standard library code to
    the object file so that the code is complete and can “stand alone”. A C
    compiler linker suffers the slightly arduous task of linking together all
    the functions in the C program. Even at this stage, the compiler can
    fail, if it finds that it has a reference to a function which does not exist.
    With the GNU C compiler this stage is activated by the command gcc
    -o or ld.

On GNU systems, this results in the creation of an executable program
with the default name a.out. To tell the compiler what you would like the
executable program to be called, use the -o read more

Introduction To DBMS Part Two

Contributed By:: Ms. Hosnia Batool

Generalization Aggregation

The ER- Model has the power of expressing database entities in a conceptual hierarchical manner. As the hierarchy goes up, it generalizes the view of entities, and as we go deep in the hierarchy, it gives us the detail of every entity included.

Going up in this structure is called generalization, where entities are clubbed together to represent a more generalized view. For example, a particular student named Mira can be generalized along with all the students. The entity shall be a student, read more

Introduction into HTML

compiled by Kay Oliver Seiferdt

With HTML content will be created, to describe the content, tags are mandatory. There are two types of tags, an  <opening tag> and a </closing tag> , of course there are some exceptions, where only one tag is needed but that will be explained at another time.
To use tags, you need angle brackets, a HTML element and for closing is a slash / mandatory.

  • opening tag  < HTML-element >
  • closing tag </ HTML-element >

The opening and closing tag are used to described the content, between the tags the content read more